3 Different Types of Biometric Door Access Control Systems
Electronic access control
Electronic access control (EAC) uses computers to solve the limitations ofmechanical locks and keys. A wide range of credentials can be used to replacemechanical keys. The electronic access control system grants access based onthe credential presented. When access is granted, the door is unlocked for apredetermined time and the transaction is recorded. When access is refused,the door remains locked and the attempted access is recorded. The system willalso monitor the door and alarm if the door is forced open or held open toolong after being unlocked.When a credential is presented to a reader, the reader sends the credential’sinformation, usually a number, to a control panel, a highly reliableprocessor. The control panel compares the credential’s number to an accesscontrol list, grants or denies the presented request, and sends a transactionlog to a database. When access is denied based on the access control list, thedoor remains locked. If there is a match between the credential and the accesscontrol list, the control panel operates a relay that in turn unlocks thedoor. The control panel also ignores a door open signal to prevent an alarm.Often the reader provides feedback, such as a flashing red LED for an accessdenied and a flashing green LED for an access granted.The above description illustrates a single factor transaction. Credentials canbe passed around, thus subverting the access control list. For example, Alicehas access rights to the server room, but Bob does not. Alice either gives Bobher credential, or Bob takes it; he now has access to the server room. Toprevent this, two-factor authentication can be used. In a two factortransaction, the presented credential and a second factor are needed foraccess to be granted; another factor can be a PIN, a second credential,operator intervention, or a biometric input.There are three types (factors) of authenticating information: * something the user knows, e.g. a password, pass-phrase or PIN * something the user has, such as smart card or a key fob * something the user is, such as fingerprint, verified by biometric measurementPasswords are a common means of verifying a user’s identity before access isgiven to information systems. In addition, a fourth factor of authenticationis now recognized: someone you know, whereby another person who knows you canprovide a human element of authentication in situations where systems havebeen set up to allow for such scenarios. For example, a user may have theirpassword, but have forgotten their smart card. In such a scenario, if the useris known to designated cohorts, the cohorts may provide their smart card andpassword, in combination with the extant factor of the user in question, andthus provide two factors for the user with the missing credential, givingthree factors overall to allow access.
Access control system components
Various control system componentsComponents of an access control system include: * An access control panel (also known as a controller) * An access-controlled entry, such as a door, turnstile, parking gate, elevator, or other physical barrier * A reader installed near the entry. (In cases where the exit is also controlled, a second reader is used on the opposite side of the entry.) * Locking hardware, such as electric door strikes and electromagnetic locks * A magnetic door switch for monitoring door position * Request-to-exit (RTE) devices for allowing egress. When a RTE button is pushed, or the motion detector detects motion at the door, the door alarm is temporarily ignored while the door is opened. Exiting a door without having to electrically unlock the door is called mechanical free egress. This is an important safety feature. In cases where the lock must be electrically unlocked on exit, the request-to-exit device also unlocks the door.
Access control system topologies
Access control system using serial controllers1. Serial controllers. Controllers are connected to a host PC via a serialRS-485 communication line (or via 20mA current loop in some older systems).External RS-232/485 converters or internal RS-485 cards have to be installed,as standard PCs do not have RS-485 communication ports.Advantages: * RS-485 standard allows long cable runs, up to 4000 feet (1200 m) * Relatively short response time. The maximum number of devices on an RS-485 line is limited to 32, which means that the host can frequently request status updates from each device, and display events almost in real time. * High reliability and security as the communication line is not shared with any other systems.Disadvantages: * RS-485 does not allow Star-type wiring unless splitters are used * RS-485 is not well suited for transferring large amounts of data (i.e. configuration and users). The highest possible throughput is 115.2 kbit/sec, but in most system it is downgraded to 56.2 kbit/sec, or less, to increase reliability. * RS-485 does not allow the host PC to communicate with several controllers connected to the same port simultaneously. Therefore, in large systems, transfers of configuration, and users to controllers may take a very long time, interfering with normal operations. * Controllers cannot initiate communication in case of an alarm. The host PC acts as a master on the RS-485 communication line, and controllers have to wait until they are polled. * Special serial switches are required, in order to build a redundant host PC setup. * Separate RS-485 lines have to be installed, instead of using an already existing network infrastructure. * Cable that meets RS-485 standards is significantly more expensive than regular Category 5 UTP network cable. * Operation of the system is highly dependent on the host PC. In the case that the host PC fails, events from controllers are not retrieved, and functions that require interaction between controllers (i.e. anti-passback) stop working.Access control system using serial main and sub-controllers2. Serial main and sub-controllers. All door hardware is connected to sub-controllers (a.k.a. door controllers or door interfaces). Sub-controllersusually do not make access decisions, and instead forward all requests to themain controllers. Main controllers usually support from 16 to 32 sub-controllers.Advantages: * Work load on the host PC is significantly reduced, because it only needs to communicate with a few main controllers. * The overall cost of the system is lower, as sub-controllers are usually simple and inexpensive devices. * All other advantages listed in the first paragraph apply.Disadvantages: * Operation of the system is highly dependent on main controllers. In case one of the main controllers fails, events from its sub-controllers are not retrieved, and functions that require interaction between sub-controllers (i.e. anti-passback) stop working. * Some models of sub-controllers (usually lower cost) do not have the memory or processing power to make access decisions independently. If the main controller fails, sub-controllers change to degraded mode in which doors are either completely locked or unlocked, and no events are recorded. Such sub-controllers should be avoided, or used only in areas that do not require high security. * Main controllers tend to be expensive, therefore such a topology is not very well suited for systems with multiple remote locations that have only a few doors. * All other RS-485-related disadvantages listed in the first paragraph apply.Access control system using serial main controller and intelligent readers3. Serial main controllers & intelligent readers. All door hardware isconnected directly to intelligent or semi-intelligent readers. Readers usuallydo not make access decisions, and forward all requests to the main controller.Only if the connection to the main controller is unavailable, will the readersuse their internal database to make access decisions and record events. Semi-intelligent reader that have no database and cannot function without the maincontroller should be used only in areas that do not require high security.Main controllers usually support from 16 to 64 readers. All advantages anddisadvantages are the same as the ones listed in the second paragraph.Access control systems using serial controllers and terminal servers4. Serial controllers with terminal servers. In spite of the rapiddevelopment and increasing use of computer networks, access controlmanufacturers remained conservative, and did not rush to introduce network-enabled products. When pressed for solutions with network connectivity, manychose the option requiring less efforts: addition of a terminal server, adevice that converts serial data for transmission via LAN or WAN.Advantages: * Allows utilizing the existing network infrastructure for connecting separate segments of the system. * Provides a convenient solution in cases when the installation of an RS-485 line would be difficult or impossible.Disadvantages: * Increases complexity of the system. * Creates additional work for installers: usually terminal servers have to be configured independently, and not through the interface of the access control software. * Serial communication link between the controller and the terminal server acts as a bottleneck: even though the data between the host PC and the terminal server travels at the 10/100/1000Mbit/sec network speed, it must slow down to the serial speed of 112.5 kbit/sec or less. There are also additional delays introduced in the process of conversion between serial and network data.All the RS-485-related advantages and disadvantages also apply.Access control system using network-enabled main controllers5. Network-enabled main controllers. The topology is nearly the same asdescribed in the second and third paragraphs. The same advantages anddisadvantages apply, but the on-board network interface offers a couple ofvaluable improvements. Transmission of configuration and user data to the maincontrollers is faster, and may be done in parallel. This makes the system moreresponsive, and does not interrupt normal operations. No special hardware isrequired in order to achieve redundant host PC setup: in the case that theprimary host PC fails, the secondary host PC may start polling networkcontrollers. The disadvantages introduced by terminal servers (listed in thefourth paragraph) are also eliminated.Access control system using IP controllers6. IP controllers. Controllers are connected to a host PC via Ethernet LAN orWAN.Advantages: * An existing network infrastructure is fully utilized, and there is no need to install new communication lines. * There are no limitations regarding the number of controllers (as the 32 per line in cases of RS-485). * Special RS-485 installation, termination, grounding and troubleshooting knowledge is not required. * Communication with the controllers may be done at the full network speed, which is important if transferring a lot of data (databases with thousands of users, possibly including biometric records). * In case of an alarm, controllers may initiate connection to the host PC. This ability is important in large systems, because it serves to reduce network traffic caused by unnecessary polling. * Simplifies installation of systems consisting of multiple sites that are separated by large distances. A basic Internet link is sufficient to establish connections to the remote locations. * Wide selection of standard network equipment is available to provide connectivity in various situations (fiber, wireless, VPN, dual path, PoE)Disadvantages: * The system becomes susceptible to network related problems, such as delays in case of heavy traffic and network equipment failures. * Access controllers and workstations may become accessible to hackers if the network of the organization is not well protected. This threat may be eliminated by physically separating the access control network from the network of the organization. Most IP controllers utilize either Linux platform or proprietary operating systems, which makes them more difficult to hack. Industry standard data encryption is also used. * Maximum distance from a hub or a switch to the controller (if using a copper cable) is 100 meters (330 ft). * Operation of the system is dependent on the host PC. In case the host PC fails, events from controllers are not retrieved and functions that require interaction between controllers (i.e. anti-passback) stop working. Some controllers, however, have a peer-to-peer communication option in order to reduce dependency on the host PC.Access control system using IP readers7. IP readers. Readers are connected to a host PC via Ethernet LAN or WAN.Advantages: * Most IP readers are PoE capable. This feature makes it very easy to provide battery backed power to the entire system, including the locks and various types of detectors (if used). * IP readers eliminate the need for controller enclosures. * There is no wasted capacity when using IP readers (e.g. a 4-door controller would have 25% of unused capacity if it was controlling only 3 doors). * IP reader systems scale easily: there is no need to install new main or sub-controllers. * Failure of one IP reader does not affect any other readers in the system.Disadvantages: * In order to be used in high-security areas, IP readers require special input/output modules to eliminate the possibility of intrusion by accessing lock and/or exit button wiring. Not all IP reader manufacturers have such modules available. * Being more sophisticated than basic readers, IP readers are also more expensive and sensitive, therefore they should not be installed outdoors in areas with harsh weather conditions, or high probability of vandalism, unless specifically designed for exterior installation. A few manufacturers make such models.The advantages and disadvantages of IP controllers apply to the IP readers aswell.
1, What is Biometrics Door Access Control Systems?
Biometrics Door Access Control Systems is the latest technology that dependson the features of humans. This is the ultimate process of identification andis executed on the basis of actual features. For the purpose ofidentification, various human features can be used. These include: * DNA * Voice * Signature * The retina of the eyes * KeystrokeUntil a few years ago, this type of system was only the stuff of dreams orJames Bond movies or in the homes of the rich and the well-heeled. However,these are now well within the reach of the public. Many organizations, privateor public, have begun to use these systems to restrict access to facilities.Whether it comes to a basic access control system such as one that involvespunching a password in, or high-tech biometric systems scanning and allowingthe entry of specific individuals, there are plenty of benefits to using thesetypes of security systems. Like fingerprint door access system, andfingerprint access control & time attendance system,
3, Different Types of Biometric Door Access Control Systems
Some of the main biometric door access control systems include:Fingerprint biometric card readerThese systems are able to make out the elevated pattern on your own fingers.Fingerprint access control system card readers help encode patterns that theyspot in key data points. These points are very small, which lowers the entireamount of data that is stored. As there is an encoding of information, youcannot use the data for real fingerprint reconstruction. Some readers are ableto read only fingerprints. Some others are multi-biometric and can read fingervein patterns as well as fingerprints. Some read fingerprints as well as offerfacial recognition. You can also find multi-modal readers that can heightenreliability but comes at an expense that is much lower than standardfingerprint readers.Fingerprint-Access-Control-SystemThese are a combination of Biometrics Identification / Recognitiontechnologies and make use of a lock and capture system for controlling entryto particular data. A person, to get entry to the biometric security system,will have to submit unique traits or characteristics that would be matched toa system database. The locking system, in case of a match, will offer userswith access to the data. A fingerprint door access system will get activatedand the data of users, who were given access, is recorded.Finger VeinIt records pictures of the vein patterns existing under the finger’s surface.The pattern of the vascular tissue, in such cases, is spotted with a near-infrared LED. The hemoglobin in blood is detected by the system, offering aprominent pattern.Multi-Biometric ReadersThese can read much-varied biometrics. For instance, these can record fingervein and/or fingerprint, or facial plus fingerprint recognition. Such readersmay also use pin numbers and RFID credentials for higher multipleauthentications.You may also find biometric facial recognition systems that are able to spotpeople in crowds. Such kinds of systems can work very fast and can enhanceaccuracy.Console Management Station SoftwareThis is a facial management software program that can run on Windows OS PCs,and let people get alerts, regulate the system on a real-time basis and managethe database of the system. With just one station, many biometric stations canbe managed.Face recognition access control systemThe newest facial recognition systems also called face recognition accesscontrol & attendance system, happen to be units that are self-contained andcan directly attach to the network. Such IP Facial readers can be installedextremely easily. These can connect to the network, followed by identifyingthe face of an individual from a previously recorded template. Such integratedunits have all the smart technologies that allow door control as well asenrolment. These capture coded data instead of a real image of an individual.Keep in mind that facial recognition systems may even be used for detecting anindividual in a crowd. A face recognition door access system is a variedsystem that makes use of varied technology instead of a biometric door reader.IP Door Access Control
Access Control Systems Overview
Access Control SystemsA Door Access Control System is a set of devices that consists of doorreaders, electric locks, a controller, and management software. Its purpose isto limit access to people who are authorized to enter an organization. It usesdoor readers that detect the unique identification numbers provided bycredentials. A credential can be an RFID card or keyFob, a person’ssmartphone, or their biometric (ie. face or fingerprint) credential. A dooraccess control system includes Access Control Management Software thatdetermines who can enter, when and what door they can use. When the right IDnumber is detected the controller releases the electric lock.The door access control readers can be simple readers that are wired to accesscontroller boxes or intelligent reader-controllers that attach to the network.The IP reader-controllers are dramatically different than the older dooraccess systems that used central control boxes. Instead of connecting to acontrol box, they connect to your network and are powered by PoE.
Network Attached IP Door Access Control Reader-Controllers
There are several reader-controller solutions. You can select the Isonas IPdoor readers that are excellent for small to medium systems, or the HartmannControls Enterprise access control system that includes advanced capabilitysuch as elevator control, and integration with IP camera systems. If you needadditional security, you can select the biometric access control system.You can select IP readers that work with RFID credentials, Bluetooth connectedMobile Credentials, or even biometric readers such as fingerprint, or facialrecognition. Door access control has become very flexible and reliable. Itkeeps your facility safe. For a review of all the access control systems visitour access control pageAll the IP readers and IP controllers connect to the network switch. Thepigtail wires from the door control and reader provide power to the electricdoor lock, detect door open or closed, provide the Request to Exit (REX)button input. This makes installation extremely easy. For more about thewiring topography of these access control systems, take a look at our article,IP Door Access Systems Wiring.Top* * *The IP access control system, consists of a door reader, a controller, anelectric lock, and access control management software. A door access controlsystem is used to prevent unauthorized entry. Credentials, like a card orkeyFOB, are used to identify the right person who can enter the door. Theaccess control system determines who can open a specific door at a scheduledtime and date.Read more…* * *
IP Door Access Control for Small to Enterprise Systems
Enterprise IP Door Access Control SystemThe Hartmann Controls advanced access control system allows you to start witha single door and grow to thousands of doors and users. Since each doorincludes its own network-attached controller, it is very easy to expand thesystem. The enterprise access control system provides advanced functionalitythat is designed for the complex access control environment.The Hartmann IP door access control system includes very powerful accesscontrol management software with support for elevator control, if-then logicfor advanced functionality, and integration with IP camera systems.For more details take a look at the access control system diagram.
Isonas IP Door Readers for Access Control
ISONAS IP door readers are both an RFID Proximity reader and a controller. Nocontrol box is required since all the intelligence is in the IP reader.Specifications for the Isonas ReadersThe IP reader connects directly to the Ethernet network and is powered by PoE.IP door readers have the advantage of being very easy to install.Since the reader converts the PoE power to 12 VDC, you can power locks withoutrunning additional power wires. All you need is the CAT 5 drop to the reader.The latest RC04 readers are available in a number of different styles andcapabilities. You can select models that mount on the side of the door frame(mullion) or on the wall. The latest models provide the option to use yoursmartphone (Bluetooth) as the credential.The readers have all the intelligence built-in so even if the network is downthe reader keeps working. Of course, it’s best to use a UPS on the networkswitch or the midspan that’s providing the PoE.Learn more about the Isonas access control system.* * *Top
Biometric Door Access Control Systems Overview
Biometric Reader Overview | Select the Biometric Reader | Buyers GuideBiometric Door Access Control SystemsThe latest professional biometric readers provide increased reliability andfunctionality. Biometric door access control units attach to the network andmeasure a person’s unique physiological characteristics. Note: They do notstore a picture of the fingerprint or face. Everything is encoded for securityand privacy.These biometric IP door readers can be powered using PoE. Some of the readersuse a splitter or 12 VDC.More details …* * *
Remote Door Access Control Using an Intercom and IP Camera
Intercoms for Apartments | Intercoms for OrganizationsIf you have a door that’s used by authorized people but can also havevisitors, you can use our intercoms and IP camera systems to control the door.You can manually control entry from your computer.For example, the intercom system notifies you with an audible alert, the videopops into a video window on your desktop so you can talk to the person at thedoor and then let them in.There are a number of different intercom solutions depending on your exactrequirements. Read more about intercomsIntercoms for Apartments use wireless connections and smartphone apps to makeit easy to control access in large organizations and apartment houses. Learnmore …* * *
Special Door Access System Solutions
Bluetooth Mobile Readers | Intercoms | Elevators | Long Range Readers | MoreDoor readers are available with special capability. The classic door readersuse proximity credentials that use an RFID signal between the card credentialand the door reader. Mobile credentials use Bluetooth connections to yoursmartphone. There are other special readers that provide longer range and canbe used to open a gate from a vehicle. And, biometric door readers read yourfingerprint or facial features to open the door.There are other special door access systems that be used to control elevators.The access control systems can also be integrated with fire alarm systems, andfor added security, you can add intercoms and IP cameras as well as walkthrough metal detectors.Here’s a summary of some of these special access control systems.