ASD Adaptive system development
VI. Kanban Method (Agile or Lean)
Kanban is a workflow method developed by Toyota engineer Taiichi Ohno for Leanproduction. Initially designed as a system for scheduling, Kanban facilitatesproduction and inventory control. Acclaimed for its ability to yield vastquantities of product, Kanban is one of the foremost methodologies throughwhich work teams can accomplish just-in-time (JIT) production.The roots of Kanban date back to the late 1940s, when Toyota was brainstormingways to mimic the shelf-stocking methodologies of supermarkets in a factorysetting. When a customer goes to a supply store, for instance, that customerwill acquire the items that are needed.Today, we have adapted Kanban as a complete flow management solution designedto help us visualize our work, maximize efficiency, and be agile. The best wayto visualize our work is by creating and using a Kanban board. The simplestone may consist of three columns – “Requested”, “In Progress,” and “Done”. Theboard serves as a real-time information repository, highlighting bottleneckswithin the system and anything else which might get in the way of smoothworking practices.Kanban is focused on ensuring stable flow efficiency and getting things donecontinuously instead of starting new work all the time. The foundations of themethod can be broken down into four basic principles and six practices.
The 6 Practices of Kanban are:
* Visualize the Workflow; * Limit Work in Progress; * Manage Flow; * Make Process Policies Explicit; * Implement Feedback Loops; * Improve Collaboratively (using models & the scientific method).Visualizing workflow, setting WIP limits, managing flow, ensuring explicitpolicies and collaborative improvement will take your process far beyond youcould think. Remember to organize regular feedback loops/cadences and allthese pieces together will reveal the true power of Kanban.If you want to learn in-depth how to use and implement these principles andpractices, read our detailed guide on what is Kanban.*Before we continue further, you can check some helpful Kanban board examples here that can be applied in a different context.
VII. SCRUM vs. Kanban
A lot of people see significant value in the concepts advanced by SCRUM, suchas team organization and ongoing feedback. However, people in the know are nowswitching over to Kanban, a method that many say takes agility to a whole newrealm and that truly harnesses the insights gained from Lean.First, we need to point out that SCRUM is an Agile software developmentmethodology. Or at least it is widely used by developers. In all fairness,SCRUM still has plenty of benefits. It offers a direct outline of what must bedone amongst a team, it keeps things directed on an end goal and it helpsteams decide the most efficient ways for getting things accomplished. SCRUMeven offers a namesake master, who ensures that teams have the necessary toolsto carry out a project and eliminate all possible roadblocks.Furthermore, one of the most loved features of SCRUM lies within the feedbackloops, which team members can use to ensure that things stay on track.Overall, the method offers an Agile framework that helps users pinpoint wheresoftware has gone wrong so they can gain new knowledge and adjust as needed.One complaint that is oft-raised about Scrum is its strictly defined sprintswhich sometimes don’t allow the flexibility to deliver continuously. In otherwords, those predefined sprints, which should not be changed once “in-flight”,can cause teams to drag their feet when responding to the needs of customers.The set lengths of the SCRUM sprints were designed to provide incrementaldelivery and offer consistency however they could turn out to be less usefulin a world where technological innovations move at a faster rate than before.As innovations hit the market more frequently, people’s preferences areevolving with greater speed.See also Kanban vs Scrum InfographicSo, in order to remain on top of the market, developers must stay on top ofthis accelerated pace. Developers only stand to lose when the length of asprint prevents tasks from ending in a timely manner.Kanban tackles the problems raised by SCRUM with a different approach to thework in an Agile environment. Instead of operating with time-boxed sprints,Kanban restricts the number of things that a collective can focus on duringany particular time span.Once a feature has been finished, Kanban offers two possibilities: 1. 1. * The feature is ready to be green-lighted for mass assembly (if those responsible opt to proceed). * The team is able to move to the task, feature, or project of second-most importance, which might be discovered that very same day.
Kanban: The Visual Appeal
On a standard Kanban board, there will be at least three columns with thefollowing labels: To Do, Doing, and Done. Under each column is a limited setof colored notes that signify the tasks assigned to the given column. Asstudies have noted, 80 percent of information is gathered visually, whichmakes the Kanban board a powerful tool for noticing and remembering the thingsthat must be done.The columns can also be given alternate names if doing so better suits theteam — the number of columns can even be extended beyond three, though it’sgenerally not advised to add too many because that could bog down the overallprocess. Although there are Kanban board examples for different occasions, themain objective is to slice the workload into several different, strictlydefined stages. The key benefits of the method are as follows: 1. 1. * Kanban helps teams stipulate varying task limits for different stages of a project. * Kanban offers an image-based timetable for the productivity of a team, which helps everyone involved collectively optimize and steer clear of any roadblocks that might appear.The outcome of Kanban is twofold: You get more response from the marketplace,and you’re able to adjust to the demands of that input with greater agility.While SCRUM does contain vital benefits — like ongoing feedback and theability for teams to organize independently — these benefits are effectivelyusurped by the arrangement features of Kanban. Kanban marks the latest stagein Agile evolution — it’s a methodology that gathers the best practices fromits predecessors for the challenges of tomorrow.
Lean development is grounded on the Japanese automaker firms’ LeanManufacturing. Lean, which is an iterative development method, drivesefficiency and delivery of value to the customers. Accordingly, non-value-added features and activities are eliminated. Its team, who has a strong setof skills, is empowered to influence any project decision-making. With aprinciple of optimizing the Whole, Lean development relies heavily on thecollaboration between developers and stakeholders. Lean development deferscommitment as much as possible but concentrates more in increasingproductivity with built-in quality and fast delivery.The companies that adopt lean thinking to bring client-value are increasinglygrowing. Lean helps organizations build quality products effectively andefficiently in alignment with customer goals. This eventually results inmaximized gains and minimized costs.
Originally Kanban was a key part of the Toyota Production System (TPS). Itlater became a part of Lean Thinking and in 2004 began being used as asoftware development tool. It stresses the need to reduce DIP (Design inProcess) inventory, improve quality and reduce waste, visualize workflow, andto measure, manage, and reduce cycle time. It calls for frequent, incrementaldelivery, and to balance demand against throughput in order to avoidbottlenecks. It also stresses the need to adapt your “normal” processes to fitthe context of the job you are currently doing, and to keep to a minimum theneed for a behavioral change of your software developers. It also encouragesthe need for a slack time among developers in order to have continuousimprovement.In Kanban, the amount of work is matched to the team’s capacity. There are notime set sprints. Quality is rarely shortcutted to make a deadline. Withoutoverburdening the team, Kanban allows delivery of the product in a continuousmode. More flexibility in the flow, better quality, and better transparencythroughout the organization minimizes cycle time, promotes higher developerefficiency, and results in faster delivery.Kanban, which has no defined roles, has two primary components in its workflow– the amount of queue and work-in-progress. Individuals, who sometimes enlistthe know-how of an agile coach, focus on the work that is actively in work-in-progress. Once a task is completely done, the developer can freely pull anitem off the top of the queue provided the work-in-progress limits are kept.WIP limits, based on the team’s capability, are agreed upon by the developersthemselves. For instance, with a team of 5, the team may be only allowed tohandle two work-in-progress jobs simultaneously. Anytime during development,an introduction of additional features and enhancements are acceptable. WhileScrum’s key metric is velocity, Kanban’s key performance indicator is theteam’s cycle time – the amount of time a work item spends in development.Kanban is better able to forecast future work delivery by having actual cycletime records of the team.For teams that are just getting started in agile, Kanban is a highly favorablemethodology option. It supports developers to reach a point of being moreagile with its directness. Kanban has a very simple core – visualize work,limit work in progress, improve quality, and enhance flow.
As a successful development from Toyota, Kanban is an approach that is stillfunctioning within Toyota to manage its production and delivery of partsinside their factories. In manufacturing, Kanban itself is a card, which isattached to the parts of the vehicles. Toyota then uses these cards to tracktheir productions within their factories.Using Kanban in software development, it covers a defined scope. When work issplit into small pieces, the scope is clearer. This is because these smallpieces correspond to a workflow or the amount of effort to accomplish thesesmall pieces of work. As a result, the workflow must be in smaller pieces ofwork by standardizing the average completion time for a refined piece of work.Kanban works in a way to define lead time as accurately as possible to avoiddelays.
How does it work? 6 key advantages of Agile methodology for project
management 1. It’s not difficult to adapt to changes during the project with a shorter planning cycle. You can always refine and reprioritize the backlog. You are able to let the team apply changes to the project. 2. The final goal can be invisible. Agile can be helpful for projects with undefined end-goals. 3. High quality and fast delivery standards. Teams can be focused on development and testing because of the breaking down the project into iterations. 4. A strong interaction of the team. The method provides face-to-face interactions. People can work together and take responsibilities. 5. Customers may work closely with the team. They are able to share their input and have a real impact on the product. 6. Permanent improvement. Agile projects provoke feedback from users and team members.
ASD (Adaptive system development)
According to this method, projects should always be in a state of permanentadaptation. Adaptive system development consists of 3 repeating series:speculate, collaborate, and learn.
The name of the method is a Japanese word that means a “visual card orbillboard”. It is a visual framework for Agile implementing that promotessmall and continuous changes to a current project system.Developers use Kanban to support a production system and the way to promoteimprovement.The key benefits of this method are to avoid overloading of the manufacturingsystem and to establish an upper limit to the work in process inventory.
Agile scrum development: responsible participants
Scrum project management shares responsibilities among a product owner,ScrumMaster and the team.Product owners are responsible for all business issues of the project. Theyare empowered to make decisions about the product and can balance allpriorities.ScrumMasters help team members work together and get the most effectiveresults. They remove impediments, track progress and issues, facilitatediscussions, arrange meetings, etc.The team assumes management roles when determining how to achieve the purposesof the product.The team members decide what technical practices are best for the purposes,which person should work on specific tasks, etc.
Kanban: an approach that originated in Lean manufacturing and has been furtherdeveloped by David Anderson (2010). Kanban is based on workflow visualization,typically on a physical board, addressing issues that cause problems, limitingthe team’s work in progress and balancing the demands on the team.